Cook’s Encyclopedia – T

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tabasco sauce: a thin spicy sauce made of vinegar, red peppers, and salt. This sauce is commonly used with Creole food, chilli con carne, and eggs.
tabouleh: a Lebanese salad made of softened bulgur wheat, tossed with tomatoes, seasoned with lemon and mint.
taco seasoning mix: a packaged seasoning meant to duplicate the Mexican sauce made from oregano, cumin, chillies and other spices.
tagine: a Moroccan dish named after the cooking utensil in which it has been cooked. These stews may contain poultry, fish, meat, or vegetables and are highly spiced with sweet overtones common in North African cuisine.
taglierini: a flat ribbon pasta, narrower than tagliatelle, measuring approximately 3mm across.
tagliatelle: a flat ribbon pasta, narrower than fettuccine, measuring approximately 6mm across.
tahini: sesame-seed paste available from Middle-Eastern food stores; most often used in hummus, baba ghanoush and other Lebanese recipes.
tamarind concentrate: a thick, purple-black, ready-to-use paste extracted from the pulp of the tamarind bean.
tamarind sauce: if unavailable, soak about 30g dried tamarind in 1 cup of hot water, stand 10 minutes, squeeze pulp as dry as possible and use the flavoured water.
tandoori paste: consisting of garlic, tamarind, ginger, coriander, chilli and spices.
tangy: strong sharp tasting or smelling.
tapenade: a paste made from cured black olives seasoned with olive oil, garlic, anchovies, capers, lemon, and marc or cognac. This is common in Provence, where it is served with croutons and raw vegetables to dip. This also makes a good sauce for grilled meats and strong flavoured fish.
tarama: salted, dried roe of the grey mullet fish.
taramasalata: a Greek dip made of olive oil and fish roe with the consistency similar to that of mayonnaise. American versions commonly use salmon, whitefish, or carp roe. This is served with raw vegetables and bread or croutons.
tarragon: a fragrant, distinctively sweet herb; sold as fresh sprigs or dried chopped leaves.
tartare: this is a term which has several meanings. It is often used to describe the preparation of raw beef called steak tartare. Raw beef is chopped finely and served with minced onion, parsley, capers, and seasoned with anything from Worcestershire sauce to Tabasco sauce. Tartare sauce describes a mayonnaise based sauce with capers, onion, hard cooked eggs, cornichons, and herbs.
tarte flambé: an Alsatian pizza with a thin crust topped with fresh white cheese, onions, and bacon. This is also called an Alsatian firepie.
tartaric acid: is used in making sweets and preserves to help prevent the crystallisation of sugar.
tarte tatin: a type of tart in which the pastry is baked on top of the fruit, then inverted when finished baking. Apples are traditionally used, becoming soft and caramelised during baking .
tat soi: also known as rosette bok choy; a dark-leafed variety of bok choy. Developed to grow close to the ground so it is easily protected from frost.
temper: to process chocolate so that any crystallisation of fat occurs in a stable modification.
temperature control: temperature Control is the methods used by a business to maintain the temperature of food at less than 5°C for chilled foods and higher than 60°C for hot foods. If the method is not controlling the temperature bacteria will grow and may cause food poisoning.
tempura sauce: hon tsuyu dipping sauce to accompany tempura or use as a soup stock for noodles. Sold concentrated; dilute with water before use. Blend of soy sauce, mirin and dashi.
tepid: slightly warm.
teriyaki sauce: home made or commercially bottled; usually made from soy sauce, mirin, sugar, ginger and other spices.
terrine: the dish (normally porcelain) that pâté is cooked and served in.
Thai basil: also known as bai horapha, this is different from holy basil and sweet basil in both appearance and taste. Having smaller leaves and purplish stems, it has a slightly liquorice or aniseed taste, and is one of the basic flavours that typify Thai cuisine.
Thai eggplants: Thai Eggplants Native to India, eggplants come in a variety of size, shape and colour ranging from egg-like to a flat sphere, glass marble size to ping-pong ball and from white to yellow, green and purple. Choose ones that are heavy with firm skins – wrinkled skins indicate age. Eggplants can be deep fried, steamed or braised in sauces, commonly used in curries, sambals and pickles.
Thai mint: also known as marsh mint; similar to spearmint. Has thick round leaves.
thawing: the act of passing food from a frozen state to a liquid or unfrozen state.
thicken: to make a thin, smooth paste by mixing together arrowroot, cornflour or flour with an equal amount of cold water; stir into hot liquid, stirring until thickened.
thyme: has a warm, herby taste and can be used fresh or dried.
tia maria: a coffee-flavoured liqueur from Jamaica.
timbale: a creamy mixture of vegetables or meat baked in a mould. French for ‘kettledrum’; also denotes a drum-shaped baking dish.
tiramisu: tiramisu consists of sponge cake, soaked with an espresso syrup and layered with a sweetened mascarpone cheese and chocolate sauce.
toad in the hole: an English dish consisting of pieces of meat or sausages covered with batter and baked in the oven.
tobasco: brand name of an extremely fiery sauce made from vinegar, hot red peppers and salt.
toblerone: brand name of famous Swiss chocolate containing honey and almond nougat.
tocino: cured ham with added colour.
tofu: also known as bean curd, an off-white, custard-like product made from the “milk” of crushed soy beans; comes fresh, as soft or firm, and processed, as fried or pressed sheets. Fresh tofu should be pressed under a weight such as a house brick for 25 minutes to remove excess moisture. Deep-fried been curd thin, deep-fried bean curd that can be opened to form a pouch; also available as seasoned bean curd pouches in packets or cans. Atsu-age is a thicker version of deep-fried bean curd.
tomato: cherry also known as Tiny Tim or Tom Thumb tomatoes; small and round. Grape small, grape-shaped tomatoes similar in texture to cherry tomatoes. Paste triple-concentrated tomato puree used to flavour soups, stews and sauces. Salsa, Bottled is a combination of tomatoes, onions, peppers, vinegar, herbs and spices. Teardrop small yellow pear-shaped tomatoes. Egg also known as Plum or Roma; are smallish and oval-shaped.
tomato pasta sauce: prepared sauce available from supermarkets.
tomato sauce: also known as ketchup or catsup; a flavoured condiment made from slow-cooked tomatoes, vinegar and spices.
tonkatsu sauce: thick, fruity, spicy sauce served with deep-fried, crumbed pork (tonkatsu); also good with grilled or barbecued dishes. Similar to any commercial barbecue sauce.
torta rustica: a large pie similar to coulibiac, filled with salmon, cabbage or spinach, eggs, and mushrooms. Other versions use meat or sausage in the filling. The crust is usually made of bread dough and sprinkled with salt before using.
tortellini: a stuffed pasta made from little rounds of dough, then twisted to form dumplings. Fillings can be made with anything and are served sauced or in a simple broth.
tortelloni: this is a larger version of the tortellini.
tortilla: thin, round unleavened bread originating in Mexico. Available in wheat flour or corn varieties.
toss: to gently mix ingredients with two forks or for and spoon.
tournedos: a slice of beef from the heart of the tenderloin, approximately an inch thick. This term is rarely used today, being replaced by fillet of beef or fillet mignon.
tourte: similar to pâté en crôute, these are pies made in a round shape and served cold. They are generally highly seasoned and preparations are indicative to the region they are from.
trennette: flat noodles, wider than fettuccine, that have one flat edge and one scalloped edge.
tripe: the stomach of beef, pork, and sheep.
triticale: this grain is a cross between wheat and rye. It is highly nutritious and is often found in mixed breakfast cereals as well as soups and sweet dishes.
truffle: this is a fungus of unusual flavour and aroma. It is savoured in Italian and French cookery, and due to its scarcity, draws a very high price. The truffle has yet to be successfully cultivated, though a fine substitute is now being grown in California. The black truffle of Perigord and the white truffle of Piedmont are highly prized for their exceptional flavours. The black truffle requires cooking to allow the flavours to be fully achieved. Conversely, the white truffle is best when shaved directly on the dish before eating. The aroma of truffles is strong enough to permeate egg shells when the two are stored together. Due to their short growing season and large demand, truffles can reach a price of up to $3000 USD per kilo (1996). Frozen and canned forms are more accessible, but their taste never reaches that of fresh truffles.
tuilles: crisp, paper thin cookies named for their tile-like appearance. They are often flavoured with almond slices, lemon, and vanilla.
Turkish bread: also known as pide.
turmeric: a member of the ginger family, the root is dried and ground, resulting in a rich yellow powder. It is intensely pungent in taste but not hot.
tzatziki: a Greek yogurt and cucumber dish sometimes containing mint and/or garlic.
tzimmes: traditionally served on Rosh Hashana, this sweet Jewish dish consists of various combinations of fruits, meat and vegetables. All are flavoured with honey and often with cinnamon as well. The flavours of this casserole-style dish develop by cooking it at a very low temperature for a very long time.

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