Cook’s Encyclopedia – G

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g: measurement unit – g (gram) = 1 kg (kilogram).
gai larn: also known as kanah, gai lum, Chinese broccoli and Chinese kale. Can be served steamed or stir-fried, in soups and noodle dishes.
galangal: a member of the ginger family. Galangal, however, tastes different to ginger and cannot be replaced by it. It’s used primarily in curries and soups. This root is very aromatic and contributes much to the distinctive flavour of Thai food.
galantine: a pate-like dish made of the skin of a small animal, most often chicken or duck, which is stuffed with a forcemeat of this animal. Additional strips of meat, blanched vegetables, and truffles are also layered with the forcemeat. This is then wrapped or tied and poached in broth, may be served hot or cold.
gallette: this is French for pancake, usually sweet, made of batters, doughs, or potatoes. Brioche-type dough or puff pastry are often used. Small short butter cookies were once also called gallettes. The term has now been stretched to include preparations made of vegetables or fish. Different from a croquette, these cakes are not breaded.
Galliano: clear yellow-coloured Italian liqueur made from infusion of various herbs and flowers.
garam masala: a blend of spices, originating in North India; based on cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, fennel, coriander and cumin, roasted and ground together. Black pepper and chilli can be added for a hotter version.
garlic chives: also known as Chinese chives; have a wide, flat and hollow stem and posses a distinct garlic flavour.
garlic salt: mixture of fine garlic powder and free-running table salt.
garnish: to decorate food, usually with something edible.
gastrique: caramelized sugar deglazed with vinegar and used in fruit-flavoured savoury sauces, in such dishes as duck with orange.
gazpacho: a cold vegetable soup served throughout all of the Spanish countries. The most common version is one made with a coarse puree of fresh tomatoes flavoured with vinegar and olive oil, embellished with diced raw vegetables like onions, cucumbers, and peppers. A light gazpacho is made with a puree of cucumber, and served with an array of garnishes for the diner to choose from. Roasted almonds, avocados, and croutons are common garnishes.
gelatine: a protein produced from animals, used to gel liquids. It is found in granular and sheet form.
gelatinise: thicken.
gelatinous: something that is gelatinous is thick and like jelly.
gelato: an Italian frozen dessert, whose popularity has overwhelmed the US, is made of whole milk and eggs. This gives it richness without flavours becoming masked by the fat from cream. The flavours are very intense and the texture is soft and silky.
Genoese: a very rich sponge cake made with eggs and butter. This may be eaten as is with whipped cream or fruit, but also used as the foundation for many other cake preparations.
ghee: clarified butter; with the milk solids removed, this fat can be heated to a high temperature without burning.
ginger: fresh also known as green or root ginger; the thick gnarled root of a tropical plant. Can be kept, peeled, covered with dry sherry in a jar and refrigerated, or frozen in an airtight container. Glace fresh ginger root preserved in sugar syrup. Ground also known as powdered ginger; used as a flavouring in sweet dishes but cannot be substituted for fresh ginger. Pickled pink gari sweet pink pickled ginger eaten with sushi and sashimi. Pickled red beni-shoga savoury red pickled ginger is sometimes used as a filling in sushi rolls.
ginger grater: Japanese grates more finely than Western graters to produce fresh ginger pulp, from which ginger juice can be extracted. Use a pastry brush to remove ginger.
glace de viande: a highly reduced stock used as an essence in flavouring sauces and enriching soups and stews. Veal glace is used for all meat preparations and stands up the best to the long reduction required. Fish and shellfish glaces are used, but their flavour can become dirty tasting and bitter from too long of a reduction.
glacé fruit: mixed fruits cooked in a heavy sugar syrup then dried.
glaze: to brush with milk or water, egg and milk, or sugar and water, to give a glossy finish and improve appearance.
gluten: a protein which is contained in wheat. Gluten enables dough to rise when baking, by trapping bubbles of carbon dioxide produced by the yeast in the mixture. Some people are allergic to gluten, and have to have a gluten-free diet.
globe artichokes: large flower-bud of a member of the thistle family; having tough petal-like leaves, edible in part when cooked.
gnocchi: these are small dumplings made with flour, potatoes, and eggs. Other versions include spinach, semolina, sweet potatoes, chopped herbs, and parmesan or ricotta cheese. Once the gnocchi are made they are cooked in boiling water, and then sauced or tossed with melted butter. Some recipes call for cooking the gnocchi in broth. Gnocchi is also the name of a pasta with a similar shape.
goat’s curd: this is a soft, fresh cheese made from goat’s milk, which has a slightly acidic but mild and creamy flavour.
goat’s feta: goat’s milk is the traditional base for this salty, crumbly cheese, giving the cheese a more complex taste. Sheep’s milk feta, the other traditional feta, and cow’s milk feta, from large commercial producers, can be used as substitutes. Goat’s feta is often stored in brine; if so, rinse it before using to remove some of the saltiness. Use within a few days of purchase and, for best flavour, serve at room temperature.
gold band snapper: variety of snapper characterised by a yellow stripe along its top. Has firm flaky flesh with a delicate flavour.
golden syrup: by-product of refined sugarcane; pure maple syrup or honey can be substituted.
gougere: a savoury pastry made of choux paste flavoured with cheese. This may be made in individual puffs or piped into a ring of puffs, which is served with a pool of sauce in the centre of the ring.
goulash: a Hungarian soup/stew made with beef and liberally seasoned with paprika. Some versions add gremolata at the very end of cooking or sprinkled over the top.
gourd: or calabash pith; sold dry, in packets, or cooked and seasoned, in cans or refrigerated packets. Softened, it’s used as a filling in rolled sushi or as a decorative tie around food.
gow gee wrappers: also known as gow gee pastry. Spring roll or egg pastry sheets or wonton wrapper can be substituted.
grand marnier: orange flavoured liqueur based on Cognac-brandy.
granita: a coarse fruit ice similar to sorbet, without the meringue, which is often flavoured with liqueurs.
grapeseed oil: made from grape seeds, this pale oil has no distinguishable flavour, but has a high smoking point, making it ideal for deep-frying.
grapeseed oil: made from grape seeds, this pale oil has no distinct flavour. Its high smoking point makes it ideal for deep-frying.
grapevine leaves: available fresh or Cryovac-packed in brine. Available from Middle-Eastern food stores.
gratin: a dish cooked in the oven or under the grill so that is develops a brown crust. Breadcrumbs or cheese may be sprinkled on top first. Shallow gratin dishes ensure a maximum area of crust.
gravlax: a Scandinavian dish of whole salmon fillets that have been cured with salt, sugar, and pepper, then flavoured with dill. The salmon is then sliced paper thin and traditionally served with pumpernickel bread, sour cream, capers, onion, and lemon. Other spellings for this are gravadlax, gravlachs and gravlox.
gravy beef: boneless stewing beef, which when slow cooked, imbues stocks, soups and casseroles with a mild, yet redolent, flavour.
grease: to rub or brush lightly with oil or fat.
grecque: foods that are prepared in the style of Greece. This is usually used for dishes with lemon, garlic, and olive oil. But the addition of tomatoes, peppers, and fennel often allows a dish to be called … la Grecque.
green chillies: generally hot, however spiciness can be reduced by removing seeds before cooking. When cutting chillies in general, wear thin rubber gloves. Be sure you wash your hands after handling them. The capsaicin, responsible for the spiciness can cause severe pain if it gets into your eyes.
green curry paste: the hottest of the traditional pastes. Particularly good in chicken and vegetable curries, a great addition to stir-fries and noodle dishes.
green mung bean noodles: also called mung bean noodles or bean thread vermicelli; available from Asian food stores.
green onions: sometimes known as shallot (UK) or scallion (USA); an immature onion pulled when the top is green, before the bulb has formed. Sold by the bunch.
green papaya: the unripe papaya fruit is used to prepare ‘Som Tam’ salad- a northern specialty. Green Papaya is also known for its papain, which acts as a meat tenderizer. Papayas are commonly found throughout the world’s tropical regions. They have been cultivated since their introduction in the 16th century by Philippine traders.
green peppercorns: soft, unripe berry of the pepper plant usually sold packed in brine (occasionally found dried, packed in salt); a distinctive fresh taste.
green split peas: also known as field peas; green or yellow pulse grown especially for drying, split in half along a centre seam.
gremolata: a mixture of chopped parsley, garlic, and lemon peel. This is added to stews at the end of their cooking time to add a pungency to the dish. Used in some recipes for osso buco a la Milanese, and Hungarian goulash.
grill: a cooking method in which foodstuffs are cooked by a radiant heat source place over the food.
grilling: to cook using dry heat either under an open grill or on a grill plate.
grissini: crisp, long, thin Italian breadsticks.
ground almonds: almond meal.
ground hazelnuts: hazelnut meal.
ground rice: rice flour is finer, but can be substituted.
gruyere cheese: a firm cow’s milk cheese with a smooth texture and natural rind. It has a nutty flavour and melts easily, making it perfect for tarts and gratins.
guacamole: a dip made of mashed avocados seasoned with onions, tomatoes, chillies, and cilantro. This is mostly eaten as a dip for fried corn chips, but it is also very good with raw vegetables. You may also use it as a filling for burritos and tacos.
gumbo: a thick soup/stew made with meat or seafood served over plain white rice, must have okra as a component.
gyoza wrappers: thin pastry circles made from wheat flour and used to enclose fillings for dumplings or pot stickers (gyoza). If unavailable, substitute gow gee wrappers.

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