cabernet vinegar: aged red wine vinegar made from the must of cabernet sauvignon grapes.
cachous: small, round, cake-decorating sweets available in silver, gold or various colours.
Caesar salad dressing: contains egg yolk, parmesan cheese, anchovies, white wine and lemon juice.
Cajun seasoning: used to give an authentic US Deep South spicy Cajun flavour to food. This packaged blend of assorted herbs and spices can include paprika, basil, onion, fennel, thyme, cayenne and tarragon.
calabacita: a variety of summer squash found in Latin American and Mexican cooking.
calamari: the Italian word for squid.
calamari rings: a type of squid, cleaned and cut into rings.
calasparra rice: Spanish short-grain rice used in paella. If unavailable, substitute arborio rice.
caldo verde: a Portuguese soup made from a sharp flavoured cabbage, potatoes, broth, and olive oil. Sausage is then cooked in the soup.
calzone: a half-moon shaped pizza turnover, often served with sauce over the top rather than inside.
candlenuts: a hard, oily, tropical nut; crushed or ground they are used as a thickening agent. The raw nut is slightly toxic, so must be cooked before eating. Substitute with macadamias.
cannellini beans: small dried white beans (also available in cans).
cannelloni: an Italian dish made of sheets or tubes of pasta filled with meat, cheese or fish, sauced and baked au gratin. Variations of this use thin pancakes, called crespelle, which are similar to crepes and are filled and cooked in the same manner as the pasta.
cannoli: a crisp pastry tube filled with sweetened ricotta cheese, chocolate chips, and candied fruit. Cinnamon and vanilla are common flavourings for this cheese.
capers: the grey-green buds of a warm-climate shrub, used to enhance dressings and sauces with their piquancy.
caperberries: fruit formed after the caper buds have flowered; caperberries are pickled, usually with stalks intact.
capicolla: a coarse Italian pork sausage. Usually highly seasoned, this sausage is served cold, thinly sliced, as for prosciutto.
capon: a castrated chicken that is savoured for its delicate taste and texture. Once castrated, the chicken would become fattened, yielding tender, juicy flesh. This method of raising chickens is not practised much any more, since most chickens are butchered at a young age and still very tender.
caponata: best known as a spread or cold salad containing eggplant, celery, tomatoes, raisins, and pine nuts seasoned with vinegar and olive oil. Modern variations will add other vegetables such as zucchini and season it with fresh herbs.
capsicum: also known as bell pepper or, simply, pepper. Discards seeds and membranes before use.
carambola: also called star fruit or five-cornered fruit; has sweet, white flesh.
caramelise: to dissolve sugar slowly in water then to boil steadily without stirring, to a golden brown colour.
caraway seeds: from a herb related to parsley; can be used in sweet and savoury dishes.
carbohydrate: to add a substance to (bread and other things made with flour) to make it get bigger when it is cooked. Yeast is added to yeast-leavened bread to make it rise and increase in volume.
carbonara sauce: an Italian pasta sauce traditionally made from pancetta, cream, cheese and egg.
cardamom: native to India and used extensively in its cuisine; can be purchased in pod, seed or ground form. Has an aromatic, sweetly rich flavour; one of the world’s most expensive spices.
cardoon: a vegetable from the artichoke family that looks like celery. Cardoons may be eaten raw or cooked and served like any vegetable.
carob: the seed from the carob tree which is dried, ground, and used primarily as a substitute for chocolate.
carpaccio: an Italian dish made of paper thin slices of beef dressed with olive oil and parmesan cheese. Slices of raw white truffles are an excellent partner to this dish.
carve: to cut meat into slices for serving.
cashews: slightly sweet nuts, native to Brazil.
casserole: usually refers to fire-proof cooking and serving dish used in either top or oven cooking; moist heat, slow cooking.
cassoulet: a dish from southwest France consisting of white beans and an assortment of meats like confit, lamb, pork, and Toulouse sausage. The dish is enriched with large amounts of duck fat and is baked until the top is brown and crispy. Variations of this dish include seafood and lentils. This dish is very substantial and needs nothing else to be served with it but a bitter green salad to cut through the richness.
caster sugar: superfine or finely granulated table sugar.
caul fat: the stomach lining of pork which is used in place of back fat for pates and to encase crepinettes.
caviar: these are the eggs of sturgeon that have been salted and cured. Grading for caviar is determined by the size and colour of the roe and the species of the sturgeon. Beluga caviar, which is the most expensive of the three types of caviar, are dark grey in colour and are the largest eggs. Ossetra caviar are light to medium brown and are smaller grains than beluga. Sevruga caviar are the smallest grains, the firmest in texture and are also grey in colour. Pressed caviar is made of softer, lower quality eggs and have a stronger, fishier flavour. The term malossol is used to describe the amount of salt used in the initial curing process. The roe from other fish such as salmon, lumpfish, and whitefish are not considered caviars, regardless of their label. They should be addressed as roe. Caviar should be served as simply as possible. Traditional accompaniments, inspired by the Russians, are sour cream, blinis, and ice cold vodka. Lemon and minced onion are often served with caviar, but their flavours will only detract from the pure delicate flavour of the caviar.
cayenne pepper: a thin-fleshed, long, extremely hot red chilli; usually purchased dried or ground.
celeriac: tuberous root with brown skin, white flesh and a celery-like flavour.
cepes: a wild mushroom of the boletus family known for their full flavour and meaty texture.
cha: the Indian name for tea, often served with milk and sugar.
champignons: small mushrooms, usually canned.
chanterelle: a wild mushroom with a golden colour and a funnel-shaped cap. The whole mushroom is edible and is savoured for its exquisite flavour and firm texture when cooked. chantilly: this is a name for sweetened whipped cream flavoured with vanilla. The term may also be used to describe sauces that have had whipped cream folded into them. This includes both sweet and savoury sauces.
chapattis: a whole wheat Indian flat-bread that can be grilled or dry fried.
charcuterie: the French word for the variety of pork preparations that are cured, smoked, or processed. This includes sausages, hams, pates, and rillettes. This term may also imply the shop in which these products are sold and the butchers who produce it.
charlotte: the name for two different desserts. The first preparation is made of slices of bread which are lined in a mould, filled with fruit, and baked until the bread acquires a golden colour and crisp texture. The second version, similar to the first, lines a mould with cake or lady fingers and is filled with a Bavarian cream. These may also be filled with whipped cream or even a fruit mousse. More elaborate versions layer the cake with jam, then slices of this cake is used to line the mould.
charmoula: a sauce and marinade used in Middle Eastern cooking made of stewed onions flavoured with vinegar, honey and a spice mixture called “rasel hanout”. This is a complex spice mixture containing cinnamon, black pepper, cloves, cumin and sometimes paprika and coriander. This sauce is used on meat and fish and can even be adjusted to make a unique vinaigrette.
chasseur: a French cooking style in which meat and chicken dishes are cooked with mushrooms, spring onions, white wine, and often tomato.
chateaubriand: the head of the beef tenderloin.
chaud-froid: meat or fish that has been poached or roasted, chilled and served cold, masked with a thick sauce and glazed with aspic. The whole preparation was once quite popular and used consistently on elaborate buffets.
chayote: a pear shaped squash, used in Latin American cooking, with a taste of zucchini. Chayote may be eaten raw or cooked as you would any summer squash.
cherimoya: also called the custard apple, this is a tropical fruit with a creamy texture and sweet pineapple flavour.
chermoulla: a piquant Moroccan paste mixture of fresh and ground spices including coriander, cumin and paprika.
cherries: soft stone fruit varying in colour from yellow to dark red. Sweet cherries are eaten whole and in desserts, while sour cherries, such as the bitter Morello variety, are used in jams, preserves, pies and savoury dishes, particularly as an accompaniment to game birds and meats.
cherry ripe: a cherry and coconut bar coated in dark chocolate.
chervil: a mild-flavoured member of the parsley family, this aromatic herb has curly, dark green leaves with an elusive anise flavour. Though most chervil is cultivated for its leaves alone, the root is edible and was, in fact, enjoyed by early Greeks and Romans. Today it’s available dried but has the best flavour when fresh. Both forms can be found in most supermarkets. It can be used like parsley but its delicate flavour can be diminished when boiled.
chevre: the French word for goat, generally referring to goat’s milk cheeses.
chiboust: a custard made originally as the filling for the gâteau Saint-Honor, consisting of pastry cream lightened with Italian meringue and stabilised with gelatine.
chicharron: crispy fried pigskin used in Mexican cooking for salads, fillings and snacks.
chicken breast fillets: breasts halved, skinned and boned.
chicken tenderloins: thin strip of meat lying just under the breast.
chickpeas: also called garbanzos, hummus or channa; an irregularly round, sandy-coloured legume.
chicory: a bitter vegetable with slender pale green stems and long dark leaves. Remove most of the tough stems before cooking. Subsitute with silverbeet (swiss chard).
chiffonade: a very fine julienne of vegetables usually associated with leafy herbs, lettuces, or greens.
chilaquiles: a family style Mexican dish of refried corn tortillas simmered in a sauce of tomatoes, chillies, and garlic. This is a highly seasoned dish, often served as a brunch or lunch dish with eggs or grilled meats.
chill: refrigerate food between 0°C – 5°C.
chillies: available in many different types and sizes, both fresh and dried. Generally the smaller the chilli, the hotter it is; removing seeds and membranes lessens the heat level. Tip: use rubber gloves when seeding and chopping chillies as they can burn your skin.
chilli paste in oil: also referred to as nam prik pao, contains dried chillies, garlic and shallots, which are slowly simmered in vegetable oil. This chilli paste contributes its fragrant flavour to many Thai dishes.
chilli powder: sun Dried Chilli Peppers are slow-roasted in a pan without the use of cooking oil. Constant stirring ensures that all chillies are evenly roasted. They are then blended into fine powder. Although it can be purchased, it is well worth the effort of preparing it by yourself.
chilli soy bean paste: made from crushed salted and fermented yellow soybeans, with chilli added, it has a sweet, well-rounded flavour. Available from Asian food stores.
Chinese black and red vinegar: are types of rice vinegar made from fermented rice. Black vinegar, usually made from glutinous rice and is very popular in nortjern China. Red vinegar is a clear, pale, red rice vinegar mainly used as a dipping sauce.
Chinese black beans: these salted black beans can be found either vacuum-packed or in tins in Asian food stores. Their stron flavour can be used to bring a rich saltiness to stir-fries and sauces for beef dishes.
Chinese broccoli: also known as gai lam.
Chinese cabbage: also known as peking cabbage or wong bok.
Chinese celery: the celery stalks are thin and hollow and have a stronger taste and smell than Western celery. It is used in stir-fries and soups or blanched and used in salads. Ensure the leaves are green and the stems are firm. If not available, use regular celery.
Chinese cooking wine: made from rice, wheat, sugar and salt, with 13.5% alcohol; available from Asian food stores. Mirin or sherry can be substituted.
Chinese five spice powder: an aromatic mix of ground spices. Chinese five-spice powder is made up from star anise, black pepper, fennel seeds, cassia and cloves. It can be rubbed into the skin of chicken or duck or used sparingly to add an interesting flavour to pork or beef.
Chinese sesame paste: is a light brown, rich, creamy paste made from ground, roasted white sesame seeds. It is different from Lebanese tahini, which is made from raw sesame seeds and cannot be used as a substitute. It is added to sauces for both hot and cold dishes.
Chinese mushroom: also known as jelly mushroom, it is found in various dishes of Asian origin. Thais use it for its particularly crunchy texture. It can be used in soups, salads or stir fried vegetable dishes.
Chinese style chicken: boiled chicken. Can be light brown or white in colour – depending on whether it has been boiled in Soy Sauce. Hung in restaurant windows.
Chinese style roast/bbq pork: slabs of cooked Pork Ribs hung in restaurant windows.
Chinese style (peking) roast duck: duck dipped in mixture before being roasted. Red in colour and hung in restaurant windows.
chipotle: a dried and smoked jalapeno which can be found dried or reconstituted and sold in tomato sauce. These chillies are extremely hot and caution should be taken when using them in cooking.
chive: related to the onion and leek, this fragrant herb has slender, vivid green, hollow stems. Chives have a mild onion flavour and are available fresh year-round. They are a good source of vitamin A and also contain a fair amount of potassium and calcium.
choc bits: also known as chocolate chips or morsels; available in milk, white and dark chocolate. Made of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter, sugar and an emulsifier, these hold their shape in baking; ideal for decorating.
chocolate hazelnut spread: also known as Nutella.
chocolate melts: discs of compounded chocolate ideal for melting or moulding.
chop: to cut food into small even-sized pieces.
chopping board: provides a solid base for cutting food or resting hot pans. May be made of plastic, wood or marble.
chopsticks: japanese chopsticks have more pointed ends than Chinese. They range from ornate, lacquered models to disposable pine or bamboo versions. Longer chopsticks are for cooking and are usually joined at the top with string so they can be hung up, or used for serving.
chorizo sausage: a sausage of Spanish origin, made of coarsely ground pork and highly seasoned with garlic and chillies.
choron: a variation of Bearnaise sauce with tomato puree or concasse added..
choucroute: an Alsatian speciality consisting of sauerkraut that is simmered with assorted fresh and smoked meats and sausages. This is a grand dish served on huge platters so that diners may witness all of the components displayed at one time. The kraut is first washed, then seasoned with garlic, caraway seeds, and white wine. The meats are layered in the casserole with the kraut and cooked until all the meat is tender and the flavours have blended together. Pork sausages, smoked pork shanks and shoulders, and fresh pork loin are all used. A variation of this, though not actually called a choucroute, is a whole pheasant cooked in sauerkraut with champagne. There are other recipes that consist of solely fish in with the sauerkraut. This can be quite delicious if properly prepared.
choy sum: also known as flowering bok choy or flowering white cabbage.
chutney: the name for a large range of sauces or relishes used in East Indian cooking. Fresh chutneys have a bright, clean flavour and are usually thin, smooth sauces. Cilantro, mint, and tamarind are common in fresh chutney. Cooked chutneys have a deeper, broader flavour.
ciabatta: in Italian, the word means ‘slipper’, which is the traditional shape of this popular crisp-crusted white bread.
cinnamon stick: dried inner bark of the shoots of a cinnamon tree.
cinnamon sugar: combination of ground cinnamon and caster sugar.
cioppino: a rich fish stew from San Francisco made with shrimp, clams, mussels, crabs, and any available fish. The broth is flavoured with tomato, white wine, garlic, and chilli flakes. This stew needs no other courses served but a simple green salad and a lot of sourdough bread.
civet: a French stew usually containing game, though duck and goose are used. The meat is marinated in red wine for long periods of time, then stewed with pearl onions and bacon. The sauce was traditionally thickened with blood, but that is a method not used much any more.
clafoutis: a dessert of fruit, originally cherries, covered with a thick batter and baked until puffy. The dessert can be served hot or cold.
clarify: to remove impurities from food; to melt butter and drain the oil off the sediment.
clotted cream: this speciality of Devonshire, England (which is why it is also known as Devon cream) is made by gently heating rich, unpasteurised milk until a semisolid layer of cream forms on the surface. After cooling the thickened cream is removed. It can be spread on bread or spooned atop fresh fruit or desserts. The traditional English “cream tea” consists of clotted cream and jam served with scones and tea. Clotted cream can be refrigerated, tightly covered, for up to four days.
cloves: dried flower buds of a tropical tree; can be used whole or in ground form.
coarse: rough and not smooth or soft.
coat: to place a layer or covering of food on a different food. Example: Coat the top of a pastry with icing sugar. To coat fish with flour prior to cooking.
cock-a-leekie: a thick Scottish soup made with chicken, leeks, and barley. Modern versions have lightened up this soup by using a chicken broth garnished with leeks and barley.
cocoa powder: also known as cocoa; dried, unsweetened, roasted then ground cocoa beans.
coconut cream: obtained commercially from the first pressing of the coconut flesh alone, without the addition of water.
coconut milk: not the juice found inside the fruit (coconut water), but the diluted liquid from the second pressing of the white meat of a mature coconut (the first pressing produces coconut cream). Available in cans and cartons at supermarkets.
coeur à la crème – meaning “the heart of the cream”, this is a soft cheese dessert where the mixture is drained in a mold to help it set. The cheese is then turned out onto a platter and served with fruit and bread.
coffee-flavoured liqueur: Tia Maria, Kahlua or any generic brand.
cointreau: a clear French liqueur, orange-flavoured brandy, 40% alcohol by volume.
collard greens: one of a variety of “greens” with a firm leaf and sharp flavour.
colombo: a West Indian stew seasoned with a spice mixture of the same name. This is similar to curry powder, containing coriander, chillies, cinnamon, nutmeg, saffron, and garlic. The stew may contain pork, chicken, or fish. Vegetables are cooked in the stew and rice and beans are served on the side.
colourings: many types are available from cake decorating suppliers, craft shops and some supermarkets; all are concentrated. It’s best to use a minute amount of any type of colouring first to determine its’ strength.
compote: pieces of fruit cooked in syrup and retaining their shape.
concasse: the term for chopping a vegetable coarsely. This is used most often when referring to chopped tomatoes.
concasser: to chop coarsely, usually tomatoes.
conch: to keep chocolate in a machine under agitation so that the flavour is developed and the chocolate becomes liquid.
conchiglie: large shell shaped pasta noodles. These are often stuffed and baked au gratin. Small shells are called conchigliette.
confit: from the French verb meaning “to preserve”, confit is most commonly thought to be a culinary term applied to fowl or pork slow-cooked and preserved in fat. However, the name can apply to any foodstuff, from meats to fruits and vegetables, cooked in any auxiliary ingredient, from sugar (confiture) to butter, that assists in its keeping qualities.
confiture: the term for fruit preserves. This term is used loosely now to encompass vegetables which are cooked long and slowly to produce a sweetened flavour.
consomme: a clarified broth or stock; a clear soup usually made from beef.
cook in batches: cook in small, manageable amounts to ensure even cooking and prevent stewing.
cook’s knife: large sharp knife suitable for slicing and chopping.
cool: to lower the temperature.
cooling tub: hangiri or handai the Japanese wooden tub in which cooked sushi rice is spread, cut, turned and cooled; must be washed and dried well after use to avoid becoming mouldy or discoloured.
coppa: the loin or shoulder of pork that is cured, cooked and dried. It is served thinly sliced for antipasti or on sandwiches or pizza.
coq au vin: a chicken stew flavoured with red wine, bacon, mushrooms, and pearl onions.
coral trout: a type of rock cod. Four very similar species are marketed and sold under the name “coral trout”. Delicately flavoured, firm, opaque, white-fleshed fish. Best suited to poaching, steaming and baking.
corella pears: miniature dessert pear up to 10cm long.
coriander: also known as Cilantro, is an essential herb in Thai cooking. Both root and leaves are used to flavour a wide range of dishes. The leaves are usually sprinkled on salads, soups and a wide variety of main dishes.
coriander seeds: commonly found in most of the world’s kitchens. Thais use these seeds in the preparation of various curry pastes, particularly the green one.
corn flakes: crisp flakes of corn.
corn syrup: a thick sweet syrup made by processing cornstarch; available in light or dark varieties.
cornflour: also known as cornstarch; used as a thickening agent in cooking.
cornmeal: ground corn (maize); similar to polenta but pale yellow and finer. One can be substituted for the other but results will be slightly different.
cornichon: French for gherkin, a very small variety cucumber.
cos lettuce: also known as romaine lettuce; the traditional Caesar salad lettuce.
cotechino: a fresh pork sausage with a very fine consistency and delicate flavour. It contains a small amount of ground pork rind, coteca in Italian, thus giving it the name. It is a large sausage, about 3″X 9″, used in stews and pasta e fagioli.
coulibiac: a Russian pie made with alternating layers of salmon, hard cooked eggs, rice, mushroom duxelle, and vesiga. Vesiga is the spinal marrow of sturgeon and has all but disappeared from commercial markets. The dough used to wrap the pie can be pate brisee, puff pastry, or brioche dough. Crepes are often layered in the bottom of the pie.
coulis: a puree of fruit or vegetables, used as a sauce or flavouring agent to other sauces or soups. As sauces, they are thinned down just enough to reach the proper consistency, but not so much as to alter the intense flavour of the puree.
couscous: a fine, grain-like cereal product; made from semolina.
courgette: the French word for zucchini.
court-bouillon: a well-seasoned cooking liquor, sometimes made with broth, used to poach fish and shellfish. Court-bouillons mainly consist of wine, water, herbs, and onion. Vinegar is sometimes added to the bouillon to help set the fish and enhance its white colour. Truite au bleu is a perfect example of this technique.
couscous: large grains of semolina flour that are steamed until tender and sauced with a rich meat, fish, or vegetable stew.
coverture chocolate: top-quality dark or milk chocolate with a high percentage (50 to 99 per cent) of cocoa butter and cocoa liquor (known as cocoa solids). The higher the cocoa content, the more intense and bitter the chocolate flavour. Sold in large 1 – 5 kg blocks from specialty food stores, it is also available from some delicatessens in smaller weights.
crab (spanner): small (15cm), unusually shaped bright-orange or brick-red crab with short legs and distinctive spanner-shaped claws. The flesh is similar in taste to blue swimmer crabs.
crackling: crispy pieces of skin remaining after the fat is rendered. Commonly made from pork, duck, and goose it is used in salads, stuffing’s, and seasonings.
craisins: dried cranberries.
cream: this is the portion of milk that rises to the top when milk has not been homogenised. Cream is defined by its varying amounts of butterfat content. Half and half cream is a mixture of milk and cream, resulting in a butterfat content of 12%. Sour cream and light cream have a butterfat content of 18-20%. Heavy cream will have no less than 30% butterfat, averages around 36%, and will go as high as 40%.
cream: to make soft, smooth and creamy by rubbing with the back of a spoon or by beating with a mixer. Usually applied to fat and sugar.
cream cheese: (minimum fat content 33%) commonly known as Philadelphia or Philly; a soft cow milk cheese. Sold at supermarkets in bulk and packaged.
creaming: mixing fat and sugar together until it is white and fluffy.
cream of tartar: the acid ingredient in baking powder; added to confectionery mixtures to help prevent sugar from crystallising. Keeps frostings creamy and improves volume when beating egg whites.
creme anglaise: this is a custard made of milk and eggs. It is used both as a sauce for desserts and as a base for mousses.
creme de cacao: a dark chocolate flavoured liqueur, with a hint of vanilla.
creme de menthe: a mint-flavoured liqueur.
creme fraiche: a naturally thickened cultured fresh cream that has a sharp, tangy flavour and rich texture. This is an expensive item to buy, but a good substitute can be made by mixing heavy cream with uncultured buttermilk and allowed to stand, well covered, in a tepid place until thickened.
creme patisserie: this is a thick pastry cream made of milk, eggs, and flour. Other versions of this use all or a portion of cornstarch.
crepe: a very thin pancake used for sweet and savoury fillings.
crepaze: a cake made of crepes layered with vegetables, cheese, or ham. The cake is then baked to blend the flavours and help set it so that it may be cut into wedges.
crepinette: a small sausage patty wrapped in caul fat. They are filled with ground pork, veal, or poultry and fried or grilled. Some are shaped into balls. You may also use cooked meat or vegetables to flavour a forcemeat in the crepinette.
crespelle: an Italian pancake, similar to a crepe, used in place of pasta in preparations of dishes like manicotti and cannelloni.
croquembouche: a grand dessert made up of profiteroles that are dipped in caramel and assembled into a large pyramid shape. The whole dessert is then elaborately decorated with spun sugar. The word literally means crunch in the mouth (French).
croque-monsieur: the French version of a grilled ham and cheese sandwich with Gruyere cheese.
croquette: are panéed and deep or shallow.
cross contamination: contamination from one food, surface or utensil to another for example juices of raw chicken onto a knife which is then used to chop lettuce for salad.
crostini: toasted bread slices which are brushed with olive oil and served with tomatoes, pumate, cheese, chicken liver mousse, bean puree, or tapenade. These are the Italian version of canapes.
croute: a slice of bread cut to shape and toasted or fried; used as a base for canapes.
crouton: small square or dice of fried bread. Used to accompany soups and salads.
crudite: a selection of raw vegetables served with a dip.
crumb: to prepare or cover food with a crumbing material such as bread crumbs.
crunchie: honeycomb bars coated in chocolate.
crunchy noodles: also known as fried or crispy noodles.
cube: to cut into small pieces with six equal sides.
culatello: the heart of the prosciutto.
cultured butter: also known as lactic butter; made with ripened cream and active cultures, creating a pleasant, tangy taste. It is most commonly unsalted and used as a table butter.
cumberland sauce: an English sauce used for ham, game, and pâtés. The sauce is made of currant jelly mixed with lemon and orange juice and port wine.
cumin: also known as zeera; a spice sold in seed or ground form.
curdle: to cause milk or sauce to separate into solid and liquid. Example, overcooked egg mixtures.
curly endive: also known as frisée; a loosely headed green vegetable having curly, ragged edged leaves and a slightly bitter flavour.
currants: tiny, almost-black raisins so-named after a grape variety that originated in Corinth, Greece.
curry leaves: the aromatic, shiny, small leaves of an indigenous Asian tree, with an intense curry fragrance and flavour, used in Indian and South East Asian cooking. Available fresh or dried from supermarkets, South East Asian and Indian food stores.
curry powder: a blend of ground spices; can include: dried chilli, cinnamon, coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, mace, cardamon and turmeric.
custard powder: instant mixture used to make pouring custard; similar to North American instant pudding mixes.
cuttlefish: a cousin to the squid, that is also prized for its ink sac as well as its flesh.
Cook’s Encyclopedia – C
cabernet vinegar: aged red wine vinegar made from the must of cabernet sauvignon grapes.